|GROUP||Two or more individuals who are connected in some way.|
The extent to which a collection of individuals are perceived as "group-like". A group has Entitativity if it is cohesive, inter-connected, and similar, shares common goals and involves physical interaction.
The tendency for people to perform better when in front of an audience. This is particularly likely to occur for simple tasks.
In certain situations, the presence of an audience can have a detrimental effect on performance. This is particularly likely to occur for complex tasks.
Zajonc proposed that the mere presence of others increases physiological arousal which, in turn, enhances the performance of well-learned and automatic response tendencies.
Theory proposing that social facilitation and inhibition are a consequence of conflict experienced by the participant between the task at hand and attending to others in the immediate surroundings.
The tendency for individuals to reduce the amount of effort they put in as group size increases. This may occur as a result of diffusion of responsibility, the way in which group members feel individually less responsible for any task at hand.
Individual who holds a position of power and influence and has primary responsibility for determining the direction and goals of a group.
Style of leadership in which the leader concentrates on achieving the goals of the group by effectively carrying out tasks.
Style of leadership in which the leader concentrates on ensuring positive interpersonal dynamics within the group.
|TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER||An exceptional leader who motivates group members to abandon self interest in order to work for group goals, often transforming the attitudes, behaviour, direction and goals of a group.|
Fiedler (1965) proposed that whether a socio-emotional or task-oriented leadership style is effective depends upon how much situational control the leader has over their group.
|LEAST PREFERRED CO-WORKER (LPC) SCALE||
Respondents indicate how much they like the people they have worked with on a number of dimensions. Those that rate their least preferred co-worker relatively positively (high-LPC) have a socio-emotional style, and those who rate their least preferred co-worker relatively negatively (low-LPC) have a task-focused style.
|LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY||Theory which proposes that effective leaders will be those that have a high quality exchange relationship with their group members. An exchange relationship is a relationship in which material (power, status) and psychological (e.g., trust, liking) resources are exchanged between two individuals.|
|SOCIAL IDENTITY APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP||
According to this approach, when our membership in a particular group is salient, it is our social self rather than our personal self that guides our self-concept, attitudes and behaviour. When social identity is salient, people come to see themselves as a depersonalized group member rather than an idiosyncratic individual.